Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
This volume discusses diverse methodologies in economics education, focusing on experiential economic education away from campus through study abroad, study away, and other off-campus programs. These twenty-three chapters provide a `how-to' guide for economic educators looking to expand their pedagogical repertoire, whether they want to take students to Ireland to study Adam Smith or South Africa to study poverty. Readers are provided with information about the economic content of the course as well as the nuts-and-bolts of on-the-ground experiences. Delivering a modern take on economic education, this volume is intended for economics educators wishing to engage students in new and creative ways.
High efficiency, large scale, stationary computing systems - supercomputers and data centers - are becoming increasingly important due to the movement of data storage and processing onto remote cloud servers. This book is dedicated to a technology particularly appropriate for this application - superconductive electronics, in particular, rapid single flux quantum circuits. The primary purpose of this book is to introduce and systematize recent developments in superconductive electronics into a cohesive whole to support the further development of large scale computing systems.
A brief background into the physics of superconductivity and the operation of common superconductive devices is provided, followed by an introduction into different superconductive logic families, including the logic gates, interconnect, and bias current distribution. Synchronization, fabrication, and electronic design automation methodologies are presented, reviewing both widely established concepts and techniques as well as recent approaches. Issues related to memory, synchronization, bias networks, and testability are described, and models, circuits, algorithms, and design methodologies are discussed and placed in context. The aim of this book is to provide insight and engineering intuition into the design of large scale digital superconductive circuits and systems.
Market trend and the increasing diagnoses of celiac disease have encouraged extensive research into the development of gluten-free breads. Generally, the development of bread without gluten involves the use of diverse ingredients and additives aimed at imitating the viscoelastic properties of gluten and consequently obtaining quality bread products. However, developing gluten-free bread remains a technological challenge due to the key role of gluten in the breadmaking process.Gluten-Free Bread Technology provides an overview of all fundamental issues and key factors associated with gluten-free bread technology, with the emphasis on the most recent findings on the subject. The promising results of the reviewed studies indicate that the gluten-free breads developed possess similar or better sensory attributes than those of control formulations, and some are even comparable to their wheat gluten-based counterparts. Chapters of this book focus on the role of additives, dough handling, and the physical, structural, sensory and nutritional properties of the gluten-free bread. The science of gluten intolerance is explained as well. With all relevant literature gathered and summarized in one place, this text will be an essential resource for both food scientists and industry professionals pursuing gluten-free formulations.?
This book addresses the emerging paradigm of data-driven engineering design. In the big-data era, data is becoming a strategic asset for global manufacturers. This book shows how the power of data can be leveraged to drive the engineering design process, in particular, the early-stage design.Based on novel combinations of standing design methodology and the emerging data science, the book presents a collection of theoretically sound and practically viable design frameworks, which are intended to address a variety of critical design activities including conceptual design, complexity management, smart customization, smart product design, product service integration, and so forth. In addition, it includes a number of detailed case studies to showcase the application of data-driven engineering design. The book concludes with a set of promising research questions that warrant further investigation.Given its scope, the book will appeal to a broad readership, including postgraduate students, researchers, lecturers, and practitioners in the field of engineering design.
This book features a collection of high-quality, peer-reviewed papers presented at International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligent Systems (ICUIS 2021) organized by Shree Venkateshwara Hi-Tech Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India, during April 16-17, 2021. The book covers topics such as cloud computing, mobile computing and networks, embedded computing frameworks, modeling and analysis of ubiquitous information systems, communication networking models, big data models and applications, ubiquitous information processing systems, next-generation ubiquitous networks and protocols, advanced intelligent systems, Internet of things, wireless communication and storage networks, intelligent information retrieval techniques, AI-based intelligent information visualization techniques, cognitive informatics, smart automation systems, healthcare informatics and bioinformatics models, security and privacy of intelligent information systems, and smart distributed information systems.
This book presents the select proceedings of International Conference on Innovations in Thermo-Fluid Engineering and Sciences (ICITFES 2020). It covers the theoretical and experimental research works carried out in the field of energy and power engineering. Various topics covered include fluid mechanics, gas turbines and dynamics, heat transfer, humidity and control, multiphase flow, ocean engineering, power and energy, refrigeration and air conditioning, renewable energy, and thermodynamics. The book will be helpful for the researchers, scientists, and professionals working in the field of energy, power engineering, and thermal engineering.
This book aims to explore and discuss theories and technologies for the development of socially competent and culture-aware embodied conversational agents for elderly care. To tackle the challenges in ageing societies, this book was written by experts who have a background in assistive technologies for elderly care, culture-aware computing, multimodal dialogue, social robotics and synthetic agents.
Chapter 1 presents a vision of an intelligent agent to illustrate the current challenges for the design and development of adaptive systems. Chapter 2 examines how notions of trust and empathy may be applied to human-robot interaction and how it can be used to create the next generation of emphatic agents, which address some of the pressing issues in multicultural ageing societies. Chapter 3 discusses multimodal machine learning as an approach to enable more effective and robust modelling technologies and to develop socially competent and culture-aware embodied conversational agents for elderly care. Chapter 4 explores the challenges associated with real-world field tests and deployments. Chapter 5 gives a short introduction to socio-cognitive language processing that describes the idea of coping with everyday language, irony, sarcasm, humor, paralinguistic information such as the physical and mental state and traits of the dialogue partner, and social aspects.
This book grew out of the Shonan Meeting seminar entitled "Multimodal Agents for Ageing and Multicultural Societies" held in 2018 in Japan. Researchers and practitioners will be helped to understand the emerging field and the identification of promising approaches from a variety of disciplines such as human-computer interaction, artificial intelligence, modelling, and learning.
This book states that the political systems of China, Vietnam, Cuba and other socialist countries are showing distinct maturity and ability to deal effectively with challenges - the most recent being the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to understand how they have developed their structures, it is time to return to the roots of the Marxist tradition and re-examine the question of socialist governance. It was Friedrich Engels (and less so Marx) who laid out some of the theoretical foundations for socialist governance. On the basis of extensive research in 1870s and 1880s, Engels developed his analysis of the nature of hitherto existing states as a `separated public power'; the role of the dictatorship of the proletariat and its exercise of power; the actual meaning of the `withering away of the state', which would be one of the very last outcomes of socialist construction; and the nature of socialist governance itself. On this matter, he proposed a de-politicised public power that would stand in the midst of society and focus on managing the processes of production for the sake of the true interests of society.
This book gathers the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems (ICCACCS 2020), organized virtually by Narula Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India. The book presents peer-reviewed papers that highlight new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of electronics and communication engineering, including interdisciplinary areas like advanced computing, pattern recognition and analysis, and signal and image processing. The respective papers cover a broad range of principles, techniques, and applications in microwave devices, communication and networking, signal and image processing, computations and mathematics, and control.
This book presents state-of-the-art research on security and privacy- preserving for IoT and 5G networks and applications. The accepted book chapters covered many themes, including traceability and tamper detection in IoT enabled waste management networks, secure Healthcare IoT Systems, data transfer accomplished by trustworthy nodes in cognitive radio, DDoS Attack Detection in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) for 5G Networks, Mobile Edge-Cloud Computing, biometric authentication systems for IoT applications, and many other applications
It aspires to provide a relevant reference for students, researchers, engineers, and professionals working in this particular area or those interested in grasping its diverse facets and exploring the latest advances on security and privacy- preserving for IoT and 5G networks.
This book provides a review of therapeutic foods and diets for aging patients. Drawing from extensive clinical experience in large integrative medical practices, it offers a unique and thorough perspective on the challenges that older adults present and the most effective ways to integrate nutritional approaches into their care. Nutritional therapies included here improve patient quality of life via noninvasive, lower cost care and reduce systemic dependencies in a growing demographic. This book looks at condition-specific interventions to equip the practitioner with a thorough understanding of when to call upon specific diet interventions. The text revolves around easily translated clinical tools such as tables, graphs, case studies, and examples to assure multicultural adaptation of evidence-based approaches for conventional use in clinical settings.
Integrative Geriatric Nutrition: A Practitioner's Guide to Dietary Approaches for Older Adults is a concise yet thorough resource for all physicians and medical students who treat aging patients, including geriatricians, nutritionists, family physicians, gastroenterologists, nursing home administrators, nurses, other healthcare providers, geriatric advocates, and inquisitive consumers.
The purpose of the book is to discuss the latest advances in the theory of unitary representations and harmonic analysis for solvable Lie groups. The orbit method created by Kirillov is the most powerful tool to build the ground frame of these theories. Many problems are studied in the nilpotent case, but several obstacles arise when encompassing exponentially solvable settings. The book offers the most recent solutions to a number of open questions that arose over the last decades, presents the newest related results, and offers an alluring platform for progressing in this research area. The book is unique in the literature for which the readership extends to graduate students, researchers, and beginners in the fields of harmonic analysis on solvable homogeneous spaces.
This book systematically discusses the anatomy and pathology of three specific regions of the upper extremity: the elbow, wrist, and hand. Divided into three sections, by body part, chapters cover anatomy and pathology. The anatomy chapters give a comprehensive view of each body part and normal variants found there. Although the primary modality emphasized will be MRI, illustrations and other modalities, including plain radiograph and CT, will be used to comprehensively discuss the anatomy of each region. Liberally illustrated, the pathology chapters then cover both traumatic and non-traumatic causes for imaging and detail how to perform and interpret each MRI. Specific examples include: osseous trauma, soft tissue trauma, and tumor imaging. Chapters are written with the deliberate intention to be of value to all levels of radiology training while remaining a reliable resource for attending radiologists.
This monograph presents recent developments in comparison geometry and geometric analysis on Finsler manifolds. Generalizing the weighted Ricci curvature into the Finsler setting, the author systematically derives the fundamental geometric and analytic inequalities in the Finsler context. Relying only upon knowledge of differentiable manifolds, this treatment offers an accessible entry point to Finsler geometry for readers new to the area.
Divided into three parts, the book begins by establishing the fundamentals of Finsler geometry, including Jacobi fields and curvature tensors, variation formulas for arc length, and some classical comparison theorems. Part II goes on to introduce the weighted Ricci curvature, nonlinear Laplacian, and nonlinear heat flow on Finsler manifolds. These tools allow the derivation of the BochnerWeitzenbck formula and the corresponding Bochner inequality, gradient estimates, BakryLedoux's Gaussian isoperimetric inequality, and functional inequalities in the Finsler setting. Part III comprises advanced topics: a generalization of the classical CheegerGromoll splitting theorem, the curvature-dimension condition, and the needle decomposition. Throughout, geometric descriptions illuminate the intuition behind the results, while exercises provide opportunities for active engagement.
Comparison Finsler Geometry offers an ideal gateway to the study of Finsler manifolds for graduate students and researchers. Knowledge of differentiable manifold theory is assumed, along with the fundamentals of functional analysis. Familiarity with Riemannian geometry is not required, though readers with a background in the area will find their insights are readily transferrable.
Sensors and Instrumentation, Aircraft/Aerospace and Energy Harvesting, Volume 7: Proceedings of the 39th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2021, the seventh volume of nine from the Conference brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Shock & Vibration, Aircraft/Aerospace, Energy Harvesting & Dynamic Environments Testing including papers on:Alternative Sensing & Acquisition
Aircraft/Aerospace & Aerospace Testing Techniques
This open access book examines global plastic pollution, an issue that has become a critical societal challenge with implications for environmental and public health. This volume provides a comprehensive, holistic analysis on the plastic cycle and its subsequent effects on biota, food security, and human exposure. Importantly, global environmental change and its associated, systems-level processes, including atmospheric deposition, ecosystem complexity, UV exposure, wind patterns, water stratification, ocean circulation, etc., are all important direct and indirect factors governing the fate, transport and biotic and abiotic processing of plastic particles across ecosystem types. Furthermore, the distribution of plastic in the ocean is not independent of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, since much of the plastic in marine ecosystems originates from land and should therefore be evaluated in the context of the larger plastic cycle. Changes in species size, distribution, habitat, and food web complexity, due to global environmental change, will likely alter trophic transfer dynamics and the ecological effects of nano- and microplastics. The fate and transport dynamics of plastic particles are influenced by their size, form, shape, polymer type, additives, and overall ecosystem conditions. In addition to the risks that plastics pose to the total environment, the potential impacts on human health and exposure routes, including seafood consumption, and air and drinking water need to be assessed in a comprehensive and quantitative manner. Here I present a holistic and interdisciplinary book volume designed to advance the understanding of plastic cycling in the environment with an emphasis on sources, fate and transport, ecotoxicology, climate change effects, food security, microbiology, sustainability, human exposure and public policy.
This book presents a collection of novel contributions and reviews by renowned researchers in the foundations of quantum physics, quantum optics, and neutron physics. It is published in honor of Michael Horne, whose exceptionally clear and groundbreaking work in the foundations of quantum mechanics and interferometry, both of photons and of neutrons, has provided penetrating insight into the implications of modern physics for our understanding of the physical world. He is perhaps best known for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. This collection includes an oral history of Michael Horne's contributions to the foundations of physics and his connections to other eminent figures in the history of the subject, among them Clifford Shull and Abner Shimony.