Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Nine years have passed since I dispatched the second edition, and the book still appears to be in demand. The time may be ripe for an update. As the perhaps most conspicable extension, I describe the understanding of u- versal spectral ?uctuations recently reached on the basis of periodic-orbit theory. To make the presentation of those semiclassical developments selfcontained, I decided to to underpin them by a new short chapter on classical Hamiltonian mechanics. Inasmuch as the semiclassical theory not only draws inspiration from the nonlinear sigma model but actually aims at constructing that model in terms of periodic orbits, it appeared indicated to make small additions to the previous treatment within the chapter on superanalysis. Less voluminous but as close to my heart are additions to the chapter on level dynamics which close previous gaps in that approach to spectral universality. It was a pleasant duty to pay my respect to collegues in our Transregio- Sonderforschungsbereich, Martin Zirnbauer, Alex Altland, Alan Huckleberry, and Peter Heinzner, by including a short account of their beautiful work on nonstandard symmetry classes. The chapter on random matrices has not been expanded in proportion to the development of the ?eld but now includes an up-to-date treatment of an old topic in algebra, Newton's relations, to provide a background to the Riemann-Siegel loo- like of semiclassical periodic-orbit theory.
Forewords by Claes-Göran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden, and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, TexasNanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials. Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
Composite structures and products have developed tremendously since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1986. This new edition of the now classic 1986 text has been written to educate the engineering reader in the various aspects of mechanics for using composite materials in the design and analysis of composite structures and products. Areas dealt with include manufacture, micromechanical properties, structural design, joints and bonding and a much needed introduction to composite design philosophy. Each chapter is concluded by numerous problems suitable for home assignments or examination. A solution guide is available on request from the authors.
About this book In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation. Written for: Logicians, philosophers, specialists of Cognitive Science and Computer Science, mathematicians, linguists Keywords: Foundations of Mathematics Games Logic Philosophy Semantics
Attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology as well, varying only in severity and in the primary anatomical region of dysfunctional activity.
This text focuses on alterations of the normal development of the child. A working theory is presented based on what we know of the neurological and cognitive development in the context of evolution of the human species and its brain. In outlining our theory of developmental disabilities in evolutionary terms, the authors offer evidence to support the following notions: Bipedalism was the major reason for human neocortical evolution; Cognition evolved secondary and parallel to evolution of motricity; There exists an overlap of cognitive and motor symptoms; Lack of thalamo-cortical stimulation, not overstimulation, is a fundamental problem of developmental disabilities; A primary problem is dysfunctions of hemisphericity; Most conditions in this spectrum of disorders are the result of a right hemisphericity; Environment is a fundamental problem; All of these conditions are variations of the same problem; These problems are correctable; Hemisphere specific treatment is the key to success.
Das Buch gibt eine kompakte Übersicht über Ätiologie, Klinik, Diagnostik und Therapie der iliakalen Endofibrose, einer Sonderform der peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit. Es wendet sich an Ärzte und Physiotherapeuten, die Ausdauersportler betreuen, aber auch an betroffene Athleten selbst. Das Krankheitsbild wurde 1985 erstmals bei einem Radrennfahrer beschrieben. Die Symptome sind meist belastungsabhängige Oberschenkelschmerzen, die die Karriere der oft ambitionierten Athleten gefährden. Da der Untersuchungsbefund unter Ruhebedingungen regelhaft unauffällig ist, kann es zu jahrelanger Verzgerung der Diagnosestellung kommen.
This two-volume edited book highlights and reviews the potential of the fossil record to calibrate the origin and evolution of parasitism, and the techniques to understand the development of parasite-host associations and their relationships with environmental and ecological changes. The book deploys a broad and comprehensive approach, aimed at understanding the origins and developments of various parasite groups, in order to provide a wider evolutionary picture of parasitism as part of biodiversity. This is in contrast to most contributions by parasitologists in the literature that focus on circular lines of evidence, such as extrapolating from current host associations or distributions, to estimate constraints on the timing of the origin and evolution of various parasite groups. This approach is narrow and fails to provide the wider evolutionary picture of parasitism on, and as part of, biodiversity. Volume one focuses on identifying parasitism in the fossil record, and sheds light on the distribution and ecological importance of parasite-host interactions over time. In order to better understand the evolutionary history of parasites and their relationship with changes in the environment, emphasis is given to viruses, bacteria, protists and multicellular eukaryotes as parasites. Particular attention is given to fungi and metazoans such as bivalves, cnidarians, crustaceans, gastropods, helminths, insects, mites and ticks as parasites. Researchers, specifically evolutionary (paleo)biologists and parasitologists, interested in the evolutionary history of parasite-host interactions as well as students studying parasitism will find this book appealing.
This handbook covers a wide range of topics related to the collection, processing, analysis, and use of geospatial data in their various forms. This handbook provides an overview of how spatial computing technologies for big data can be organized and implemented to solve real-world problems. Diverse subdomains ranging from indoor mapping and navigation over trajectory computing to earth observation from space, are also present in this handbook. It combines fundamental contributions focusing on spatio-textual analysis, uncertain databases, and spatial statistics with application examples such as road network detection or colocation detection using GPUs. In summary, this handbook gives an essential introduction and overview of the rich field of spatial information science and big geospatial data. It introduces three different perspectives, which together define the field of big geospatial data: a societal, governmental, and governance perspective. It discusses questions of how the acquisition, distribution and exploitation of big geospatial data must be organized both on the scale of companies and countries. A second perspective is a theory-oriented set of contributions on arbitrary spatial data with contributions introducing into the exciting field of spatial statistics or into uncertain databases. A third perspective is taking a very practical perspective to big geospatial data, ranging from chapters that describe how big geospatial data infrastructures can be implemented and how specific applications can be implemented on top of big geospatial data. This would include for example, research in historic map data, road network extraction, damage estimation from remote sensing imagery, or the analysis of spatio-textual collections and social media. This multi-disciplinary approach makes the book unique.This handbook can be used as a reference for undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers focused on big geospatial data. Professionals can use this book, as well as practitioners facing big collections of geospatial data.
This well-illustrated book covers the full range of lung and pleural diseases from the pathologic standpoint. It has been updated from the first edition by including the most recent molecular data for the different lung diseases, tumor as well as non-tumor ones. New diagnostic tests are included, new aspects for the understanding of diseases have been added. Both diseases of adults and pediatric lung diseases are presented. The chapter on lung development has been expanded due to the many new findings being reported since the first edition.The book will serve as an excellent guide to the diagnosis of these diseases, but in addition it explains the disease mechanisms and etiology. Genetics and molecular biology are also discussed whenever necessary for a full understanding. The author is an internationally recognized expert who runs courses on lung and pleural pathology attended by participants from all over the world. In compiling this book, he has drawn on more than 30 years' experience in the field.
This contributed volume provides an in-depth overview of current social and socio-political transformations in Europe and their effects on social work and its educational structures. It elucidates these transformations and structures at the individual level of ten different countries and goes on to elaborate a European perspective in this field. Readers gain insight into the variety in social work and its educational structures in Europe and, at the same time, readers receive starting points for the exchange of ideas, collaboration and further development in the individual countries and in Europe.
The introduction outlines the current developments and challenges facing social work education in Europe, contextualizing the topics to be covered in the volume. Each chapter offers an individual country profile of social work, including an analysis of typical examples of different traditions of educational models for social work that, collectively, provide insight into an overall "European model of education for social work". The countries selected represent all parts of Europe:FinlandLatviaGermanyUnited KingdomThe NetherlandsFranceItalyCroatiaRomaniaCyprusEuropean Social Work Education: Traditions and Transformations is an essential resource - an up-to-date and differentiated inventory of social work education in Europe from a horizontal and vertical perspective - which describes fields of work and approaches that prepare students to practice social work, examines the degree of academization of the discipline and investigates its structures and conditions. Social workers and social work educators, researchers and practitioners will find this an engaging and useful text.
This book is a thorough, practical review of the challenges facing clinicians treating skin microbes and how to combat these therapeutic dilemmas. It expresses the critical public health concern of antimicrobial resistance and shows how microorganisms are developing the ability to halt the progress of antimicrobials like antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals. Chapters are grouped together in five sections for ease of use. The first three sections of the book convey foundational information on the mechanisms of antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals resistance, as well as the implications of lack of vaccination. The fourth section then turns to the specifics of drug resistance for protozoan and helminth infections focusing primarily on initial and subsequent resistance to treatment. The book closes with a discussion on the potential solutions of innovative therapy including new delivery mechanisms, broad-spectrum antibiotics, phytocompounds, and biofilms. Chapters feature magnified, microscopic photos for identifying structures as they appear on the skin. Part of the Updates in Clinical Dermatology series, Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance of the Skin is an important resource relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is written for all medical healthcare professionals.
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a heterogeneous group of cancers that, if combined, represent one of the most common cancer types. Patients with HNC suffer significant morbidity and mortality due to the importance of the structures involved. Over two-thirds of these patients are diagnosed at a late stage, leading to a poor prognosis. Therefore, advancements in early detection and treatment of HNC are crucial. This second volume provides an up-to-date overview of the theoretical background in the field of head and neck cancer (HNC) as well as of the emerging research that is impacting our understanding of this disease. The book begins with a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and staging of HNC. Next, it covers the essentials of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity, an important variety of HNC. Subsequently, it covers the newly emerging research in the field of HNC. The overall goal is to shift towards precision medicine (discussed in detail in Volume I), which will bring individualized clinical benefit to patients with HNC.This second volume of Early Detection and Treatment of Head & Neck Cancers concludes with the topic of chronic pain associated with HNC, including both the mechanisms of pain and the management strategies, and the emerging oral mucoadhesive drug delivery approach for HNC. All HNC surgeons, scientists, residents, and individuals whose lives have been touched by this disease, will recognize the impact pain has upon a patient's health and his or her recovery trajectory.
This book seeks to illustrate the research on mathematics competencies and disposition in China according to the conceptual development and empirical investigation perspective. Mathematics education in China has a distinguishing feature a focus of attention to mathematical competency. Paradoxically, there has not been an explicit, refined, and measurable evaluation system in place to assess mathematical competency in China. While academic achievement surveys or evaluations are common, these can only give an overall conclusion about mathematical thinking skills or problem solving abilities. In response to this deficiency, China is beginning to carry out national projects that emphasize defining both a conceptual framework on core competencies in school mathematics and developing a corresponding assessment framework.
Thus, the main focus of this volume is the current investigations of different mathematics competencies and mathematical disposition of Chinese students, with the aim of promoting interaction between domestic and international student performance assessment, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of mathematics competencies and disposition in mainland China, and to stimulate innovative new directions in research. The primary audience of this volume is the large group of researchers interested in mathematics competencies, mathematics teaching and learning in China, or comparative studies, or the relation of the three. The book will also appeal to teaching trainers or instructors, as well as be an appropriate resource for graduate courses or seminars at either the master's or doctoral level.